Parts of speech



The parts of speech are the categories of the words in traditional English grammar. We can divide them into eight main groups (or nine, if you count determiners): nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.
The following chart contains the parts of speech, their functions, and some examples of words and sentences.


NOUN Names, places, things, or ideas. Daniel / New York / dog / notebook / music Daniel lives in New York. He likes to listen to music.
PRONOUN Replaces nouns and other pronouns. I / she / they / him / them / who / some / this Daniel lives in New York. He likes to listen to music.
VERB Action or state of being. It tells what happens in the sentence. be / go / eat / work / play / like / study / write / read / speak / watch / listen / live Daniel lives in New York. He likes to listen to music.
ADJECTIVE Describes, modifies, or gives information about nouns and pronouns. hot / nice / big / wrong / intelligent / beautiful / smart / interesting I have a nice car. Mark is intelligent.
ADVERB Describes verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. happily / quickly / well / often / really / very / always / too They always watch tv. You sing very well!
PREPOSITION Links a noun or pronoun to other words in the sentence. to / for / but / in / on / at / up / over / from / under / of / with / about / near The pen is under the table. I go there on Friday.
CONJUNCTION Connects words, clauses, phrases, and ideas in a sentence. for / and / but / or / yet / with / is / as…as / because / while I drink coffee and tea. He likes blue, but he doesn’t like green.
INTERJECTION Expresses strong emotions or reactions. oh / wow / ouch / aha / gosh / well / phew / whoops / hooray Wow! That’s beautiful. Ouch! It hurts.

There is a discussion about determiners being a part of speech since they have similar functions to adjectives, articles, and pronouns. There are four types of determiners in English: articles, demonstratives, quantifiers, and possessives.

Specifies and identifies nouns and pronouns.
that / those / some / few / such / the / a / an
The dog is barking.
I have some oranges.

As we saw with the determiners, many words in English have more than one job. For example, ‚Äúclose‚ÄĚ can be a verb, a noun, an adjective, and even an adverb. The spelling is the same, but the meanings are different.

  • VERB: Can you please close the door?

  • NOUN: It came to a close.

  • ADJECTIVE: We are close friends.

  • ADVERB: Don‚Äôt be so close to each other.

It is crucial to understand the parts of speech, so you define the exact word order and the correct use of punctuation in a sentence.
Now, try to write sentences using as many parts of speech as you can. Here is an example:

Oh, he and his old dog walked to the park slowly.
Interj. Pron. Conj. Det. Adj. Noun Verb Prep. Det. Noun Adv.

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